The genetic relationships of modern human races

The genetic relationships within the human race today (or at least of many major groups within it) has been published by L.L. Cavalli-Sforza et al, 1994, The History and geography of Human Genes, Princeton University Press. Chart One below is adapted from this work. A more detailed chart from the same source of African populations is shown below in the section that deals with early humans that stayed in Africa (Chart Two).



WorldGenetics Chart 1



AfricanGeneticsChart 2

The two charts contain some discrepancies in groups that are often classified differently by linguists and geneticists and whose status remains unsettled:

– “Melanesian” is a rather over-flexible and under-defined term that is used differently by researchers from different fields. When we use it here, then only as a synonym of Papuan.

– The classification of the Ethiopians is also unclear. In Chart One they are classified with Negrids while in Chart Two the same source classifies the Ethiopian Amhara and Tigray as Europids. Human population genetics is still in its infancy and much more research is needed to dig deeper and clear up problem areas – as well as dig up new questions.

Next: What made the first humans different?